Discover common indicators like pain, swelling and restricted movement. Gain insights to help identify and address potential issues, optimizing your recovery and performance.

Elbow Conditions

Elbow (Olecranon Bursitis)

Olecranon bursitis, a relatively common condition, is inflammation of the subcutaneous synovial-lined sac of the bursa overlying the olecranon process at the proximal aspect of the ulna (see the images below). The bursa cushions the olecranon and reduces friction between it and the skin, especially during movement. The superficial location of the bursa, between the ulna and the skin at the posterior tip of the elbow, makes it susceptible to inflammation from acute orrepetitive (cumulative) trauma. Less commonly, inflammation results from infection (septic bursitis).

Elbow Dislocation

When the joint surfaces of an elbow are separated, the elbow is dislocated. Elbow dislocations can be complete or partial. In a complete dislocation, the joint surfaces are completely separated. In a partial dislocation, the joint surfaces are only partly separated. A partial dislocation is also called a subluxation.

Elbow Fracture

Pain, swelling, bruising and stiffness in and around the elbow may be signs of a possible fracture. A snap or pop at the time of injury may be felt or heard. Visible deformity might mean that the bones are out of place or that the elbow joint is dislocated. There may be numbness or weakness in the arm, wrist and hand.

Elbow Sprain

A ligament is a band of tissue that connects bone to bone. The ligaments in your elbow help connect the bones of your upper and lower arm around your elbow joint.

A sprain is an injury to the ligaments around a joint. When you sprain your elbow, you have pulled or torn one or more of the ligaments in your elbow joint.

Elbow Tendinitis

Tendinitis is inflammation or irritation of a tendon — any one of the thick fibrous cords that attaches muscle to bone. The condition causes pain and tenderness just outside a joint.

While tendinitis can occur in any of your body’s tendons, it’s most common around your shoulders, elbows, wrists, knees and heels.

Some common names for various tendinitis problems are:

  • Tennis elbow
  • Golfer’s elbow
  • Pitcher’s shoulder
  • Swimmer’s shoulder
  • Jumper’s knee

Fractures & Fracture Care

The general aim of early fracture management is to control hemorrhage, provide pain relief, prevent ischemia-reperfusion injury, and remove potential sources of contamination (foreign body and nonviable tissues). Once these are accomplished, the fracture should be reduced and the reduction should be maintained, which will optimize the conditions for fracture union and minimize potential complications.

Leg & Knee Conditions

Compartment Syndrome

Compartment syndrome causes severe pain that does not go away when you take pain medicine or raise the affected area. In more severe cases, symptoms may include:

  • Decreased sensation
  • Numbness and tingling
  • Paleness of skin
  • Severe pain that gets worse
  • Weakness

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Tear

If the medial collateral ligament has been damaged or torn, you will usually have:

  • Pain, which can range from mild to severe, depending on how serious the injury is
  • Stiffness
  • Swelling
  • Tenderness along the inside of the knee
  • A feeling that the injured knee may give way under stress or may lock or catch.

Loose Bodies of the Knee

Loose bodies in the knee joint are small fragments of cartilage or bone that move freely around the knee in joint fluid, or synovium. They can hinder the joint moment by getting caught in flexion and extension movements. The loose bodies can vary in size from a few millimeters (such as the size of a small pill) to a few centimeters (the size of a quarter). The fragments can lead to damage to the articular cartilage, causing osteoarthritis.

Meniscal Injuries & Tears

Meniscus tears are common in contact sports like football as well as noncontact sports requiring jumping and cutting such as volleyball and soccer. They can happen when a person changes direction suddenly while running, and often occur at the same time as other knee injuries, like an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Meniscus tears are a special risk for older athletes since the meniscus weakens with age. More than 40% of people 65 or older have them.

Knee Bursitis

Knee bursitis is inflammation of a bursa located near your knee joint. Abursa is a small fluid-filled, pad-like sac that reduces friction and cushions pressure points between your bones and the tendons and muscles near your joints.

Knee Ligament Injuries & Tears

Ligament injuries in the knee – such as an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) — are dreaded by professional and amateur athletes alike. They can be painful and debilitating. They can even permanently change your lifestyle.

But there’s good news. While an ACL injury or other ligament damage once ended the career of many an athlete, treatment has become much more successful.

Ankle Conditions

Loose Bodies in the Ankle

Loose bodies don’t have to cause problems and they can often be stable and fixed within the joint space. If they are free in the joint they may become trapped between the bony joint surfaces where they may give rise to twinges of pain, locking of the joint or blocked or ‘springy’ movements.

A loose body in the ankle and foot causes twinges of pain, swelling and the sensation of giving way. There may also be the sensation of locking but that usually passes quite quickly.

Physiotherapy can help by applying a special technique that stretches through the affected joint to give the loose body room to move, and then applying a few sharp flicks to jolt the loose body into a more comfortable position.

Fractures & Fracture Care

What causes an ankle fracture?

  • A car accident
  • A direct blow to the ankle
  • Falling on your ankle

What are the signs and symptoms of an ankle fracture?

  • You have pain, redness, and swelling.
  • Your ankle feels warm when you touch it.
  • You have trouble moving your ankle or foot.
  • You cannot put weight on your injured ankle.
  • Your foot feels weak, achy, or numb.
  • You see parts of the bone coming out of the skin.

Sprains & Strains

Sprains and strains are injuries to the body, often resulting from physical activity. These injuries are common and can range from minor to severe, depending on the incident. Most sprains and strains are minor and don’t require medical attention.

Sprains occur at joints and affect ligaments, which connect bone to bone. Strains affect muscles or tendons, which connect muscle to bone. They most often occur at the calf, thigh, or groin.

Foot Conditions

Sprains & Strains

Sprains and strains are injuries to the body, often resulting from physical activity. These injuries are common and can range from minor to severe, depending on the incident. Most sprains and strains are minor and don’t require medical attention.

Sprains occur at joints and affect ligaments, which connect bone to bone. Strains affect muscles or tendons, which connect muscle to bone. They most often occur at the calf, thigh, or groin.

Nerve Entrapment Syndrome

Nerve compression syndrome or compression neuropathy, also known as entrapment neuropathy, is a medical condition caused by direct pressure on a single nerve. It is known colloquially as a trapped nerve, though this may also refer to nerve root compression (by a herniated disc, for example).

Ligament Laxity

Ligamentous laxity is a term given to describe “loose ligaments.”

Ligament laxity is a cause of chronic body pain characterized by loose ligaments. When this condition affects joints in the entire body, it is called generalized joint hypermobility, which occurs in about five percent of the population, and may be genetic. Loose ligaments can appear in a variety of ways and levels of severity. It also does not always affect the entire body. One could have loose ligaments of the feet, but not of the arms.

Gait Disorder

Gait abnormality is a deviation from normal walking (gait). Watching a patient walk is the most important part of the neurological examination. Normal gait requires that many systems, including strength, sensation and coordination, function in an integrated fashion.


Symptoms of synovitis may include redness, swelling, warmth, and pain with joint motion.

Evaluation by a foot and ankle surgeon will help confirm the diagnosis, and help rule out other possible concerns such as fractures or infections. The surgeon may sample fluid from the joint to analyze for inflammatory cells, or may order xrays or other advanced imaging tests to better evaluate the affected joint.

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

The tarsal tunnel is a space in the foot formed between bones and overlying fibrous tissue. Within the tarsal tunnel lies a nerve called the posterior tibial nerve. The tarsal tunnel is walled on one side by sturdy bones, and on the other by tough fibrous tissue.

What is tarsal tunnel syndrome?

Tarsal tunnel syndrome results when the posterior tibial nerve is compressed within the tarsal tunnel.


The principal symptom associated with a neuroma is pain between the toes while walking. Those suffering from the condition often find relief by stopping their walk, taking off their shoe, and rubbing the affected area. At times, the patient will describe the pain as similar to having a stone in his or her shoe. The vast majority of people who develop neuromas are women.


Inflammation of nerves. There are many causes of neuritis, including various viruses and local irritation of a nerve by adjacent tissues.

Turf Toe

Turf toe is not a term you want to use when talking to a head football coach about his star running back or the ballerina before her diva debut. “Turf toe” is the common term used to describe a sprain of the ligaments around the big toe joint. Although it’s commonly associated with football players who play on artificial turf, it affects athletes in other sports including soccer, basketball, wrestling, gymnastics, and dance. It’s a condition that’s caused by jamming the big toe or repeatedly pushing off the big toe forcefully as in running and jumping.

Shoulder Conditions


Tendinitis is when the rotator cuff tendons get irritated and inflamed. Over time, the tendons can develop small tears. This can be caused by doing a certain activity over and over again (like pitching or golfing) or from the usual wear and tear that comes with age. Tendinitis causes soreness in the shoulder. It may hurt to do things like lift your arms up. 


Bursitis is when the bursae in the shoulder become swollen and inflamed. Bursae are small sacs of fluid that make it easier for the tendons to slide over the bones when you move. Overusing the shoulder joint can cause inflammation in the sacs. This can make it painful to use your shoulder even for simple tasks.


Arthritis causes pain, stiffness, and swelling in the shoulder joint. The most common kind of arthritis that affects the shoulder is osteoarthritis. This is when the slick cushion of cartilage between the bone wears away, causing the bones to rub together. It can be caused by overuse, by doing the same task over and over (repetitive motion), or by daily wear and tear.

Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder is stiffness and pain that gets worse over time and eventually makes it hard for you to move your shoulder at all. The medical term for frozen shoulder is adhesive capsulitis. Doctors aren’t sure what causes frozen shoulder.


A sprain is when a ligament gets stretched or torn because it was pulled too far or the wrong way.  


A dislocation is when the top of the arm bone comes part or all of the way out of the shoulder socket. The top (ball) of the arm bone is bigger than the socket that holds it. Dislocation can happen if the shoulder is hit hard or the ligaments that keep the shoulder bones stable get stretched or torn. Dislocation puts stress on the joint. If it happens a lot, it can cause ongoing joint problems like arthritis.

Torn Rotator Cuff

A torn rotator cuff is when one of the major tendons in the shoulder tears and pulls away from the top of the arm bone. A partial tear is when the tendon is damaged, but not completely severed. Rotator cuff tears are often caused by falls or blows, but they can also be caused by repetitive motion over time, bone spurs, or weakness due to age.


A fracture is a break or crack in your bone. A fracture can be across your bone or along the length of your bone. With some fractures, the bones break but don’t move around. With others, the bones are moved or shattered in many places. In younger people, a shoulder fracture is usually from an impact, such as from a car accident or sports injury. In older people, it is usually from a fall. A fracture is painful and usually causes swelling and bruising around the shoulder. A fracture will make it difficult to move your arm or other muscles near the shoulder joint.

Hip Conditions


This degenerative joint disease is one of the most prevalent hip conditions, especially among older adults. It occurs when the cartilage that cushions the hip joint wears down over time, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced range of motion.

Hip Fractures

Fractures of the hip bone are often seen in older individuals, particularly those with osteoporosis. These fractures can occur due to a fall or trauma and require immediate medical attention.


The bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the hip joint. When these sacs become inflamed, typically due to repetitive movements or injury, it leads to bursitis. Symptoms include pain, swelling, and tenderness in the hip area.

Hip Dysplasia

This condition involves abnormal development of the hip joint, leading to instability and potential dislocation. It is often present from birth but may not manifest symptoms until later in life.

Labral Tears

The labrum is a ring of cartilage surrounding the hip socket, providing stability and cushioning. Tears in the labrum can occur due to injury, overuse, or structural abnormalities, resulting in hip pain, stiffness, and a clicking sensation.

Hip Impingement

Also known as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), this condition occurs when there is abnormal contact between the ball and socket of the hip joint. This can lead to pain, limited range of motion, and may contribute to the development of osteoarthritis.